Are you new in C? Many tutorial in the world wide talk about C. Why I want to share this? Because, if you not handle input properly especially in C, your program will broken. Why this happen? You never know when someone will break your program within the hole from user input. Some principal I quote for this things from OWASP, check here.
Don’t Trust User Input.
In C when you not limited the user input and the user input larger than the container, the input filled up your container and also fill another container. It is also called Buffer Overflow. The key for handle the user input, limited the user input same with you define the container for that input. I tell how limited the user input used standard input in C. (You should pay attention too when used C standard library in C++).
Are scanf() always safe to use handle user input? I think the answer is yes when you properly define the format correctly. See the different from code below.
We can see the different is the format input in scanf(). When you bring input string with larger than 5 character (try 20 character or more) that will break your program in first code. Second code still take 5 character to save into str1. Another standard input you used should be limited the input will store to variable or container. I bring some example too.
Use fgets() besides gets()
See this example when using gets().
When you try string with character more than 5, It also break your program. You should try another function like fgets that take input with some value. Look this example.
Are you see the different? You limited the user input. This type of input will keep away from Buffer Overflow. You can check another function that handle the user input too. You should check the length of buffer or input from user. Also when you copy, concat, sometimes print too should be check the buffer size. You should use strncpy() besides strcpy(). You should use strncat() besides strcat().
You should limited the user input as you limited the container or variable too. Use the input function correctly and handle the user input carefully. I recommend to always predict the length of user input should be and what maximum space from container you can save it. I hope with this article, you will aware with your code from now. Have a great day!